Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is the commitment that all people have access to affordable essential health services without out-of-pocket payments, reflecting our belief that healthy individuals are essential for economic development and growth, and that health is a fundamental human right that all deserve.
Multiple countries have taken different paths to UHC. One approach is ensuring all citizens can access primary health care. In order to reach that goal, countries must invest in strong and efficient health systems that are embedded in their respective communities while having sufficient funds available to pay for essential services.
UHC allows countries to choose among various health financing models for universal healthcare coverage. One option is an all-payer system, in which citizens contribute directly to an all-payer “sick fund” covering medical expenses – popular in the US but not necessarily the only way universal care can be provided; mixed models combining public funding with private insurance might work better, as seen in Australia and New Zealand, where residents receive free hospitalization while private health insurance supplements their coverage.
Authorities could allocate specific budgetary amounts in their general taxation system that can then be used for specific interventions – this model has proven particularly popular in Brazil, Mexico and Thailand. Furthermore, countries can also use earmarks to specifically allot funds for health care use.
No matter which health financing model is chosen, achieving universal health coverage (UHC) requires strong political leadership and widespread popular support. Social movements have played an instrumental role in raising this issue to the agenda and galvanizing public pressure for reforms; many countries such as Turkey and Brazil have seen social movements collaborate with government leaders to implement and expand UHC policies.
Inequalities remain an intractable challenge to Universal Health Coverage. Although aggregate data reveal progress towards expanding coverage, they also mask significant disparities within countries and across population groups; some women do not receive essential obstetric care while many must wait months just for basic services like vaccinations or prescription drugs.
UHC is an essential global priority, but each country’s journey toward it varies significantly according to political and economic realities. However, this study offers key lessons that can assist nations in formulating strategies for reaching UHC. While UHC may seem an impossibly long journey ahead, ultimately its success lies in nations’ abilities to leverage their strongest assets — their people — for maximum efficiency; governments must use all available resources effectively so as to provide their citizens with adequate health services they are entitled to receive.